According to our analysis, the room for manoeuvre to achieve the 2oC target is significantly reduced by the exclusion of negative emissions over the course of this century. Nevertheless, we show that if future damage follows the same temperature dependence that we have observed so far, the total cost will reach a level that will optimize costs by 2oC. This result is a direct result of recent empirical evidence of a significant increase in border damage at higher temperatures and the universal functional behaviour of mitigation costs near current temperatures (see Figure 1). Our study reports a positive overall average variation of 6.5% (see Table 1 for the ranges) in the FB of fish species at the top of the agreement under the agreement scenario. For the exclusive economic zones of developing and developed countries, we report average variations of 8.4% and 0.4% respectively (Table 1). On all continents, with the exception of Europe, a higher FB is expected with (conversely) the implementation of the agreement. We also note that 75% of the countries of the sea would benefit from the implementation of the agreement. The increase in FB benefits in developing countries is due to the high sensitivity of tropical habitat conditions and fish stocks to different warming scenarios. The implementation of the agreement thus maintains the habitatability of tropical species and mitigates significant potential reductions in biomass and capture. The continuation of the Paris Agreement recognizes the responsibility of the United States as the world`s largest economy and the largest historical contribution to the greenhouse gas emissions that fuel climate change. The United States accounted for 18% of global emissions between 1990 and 2012, but with less than 5% of the world`s population.
Through the Paris Agreement, the United States has worked with other rich nations to accelerate climate financing for the most vulnerable countries already suffering the most severe effects of climate change. We find that the target of 2oC is the optimal temperature for basic calibration (Figure 2a). This calibration includes the best estimate8 of the past economic temperature-growth ratio and the initial value of the SEC in the 2013 DICE-2013 of 2.9oC, which has been at the centre of estimates for several decades26,27.